IYPT 2019 Elements 023: Vanadium: Hardened steel and yellow blood

Element 23 in our International Year of the Periodic Table elements series is vanadium. Vanadium is found in some steels to improve their hardness and is also behind the yellow blood of some animals. Steel used to make tools such as wrenches and drill bits often have vanadium added in small amounts. This increases the […]



  1. Film Base

    Vanadium is harder than most metals and steels (see Hardnesses of the elements (data page) and iron ). It has good resistance to corrosion and it is stable against alkalis and sulfuric and hydrochloric acids .

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